Чувашский государственный институт гуманитарных наук > Новая зарубежная литература > THE CHUVASH HISTORY (SHORT VERSION) BY SHOORA SHOOROOMBOOS (SHOORMBOOS)
THE CHUVASH HISTORY (SHORT VERSION) BY SHOORA SHOOROOMBOOS (SHOORMBOOS)
Original - more details with maps and photos here: http://www.zaryanin.com/alexander/histchuv-en/
THE CHUVASH HISTORY (SHORT VERSION)
BY SHOORA SHOOROOMBOOS (SHOORMBOOS)
Chuvashes are a descendants of Volga Bulgarians (Bulghars).
Tatars, their own devastating invasion 13-15th ages, had compelled the much a Volga Bulgarians search for salvation on right side of Volga River (bulgarian: Atil, Atel).
Here Bulgars to assimilate the aborigine Cheremises tribes (Mari). Thereby from Bulgar of Volga was formed the modern nation - a Chuvash.
Tatars are usual turkic, they are descendant of medieval state the Golden Horde.
Golden Horde, the part of Mongolian Empire by created Chingizkhan.
Volga Bulgars named by ethnic name 'tatar' the all nomadic tribes on territory of the modern Mongolia and northern China.
At the end of the 14th age Timur (Tamerlane), the known conqueror from Middle Asia, have invaded the Golden Horde. His forces ravaged many cities of the Golden Horde and weakened the might of Horde.
Timur has totally destroyed the cities and villages of Volga Bulghars on the left side of the rivers a Kama and Volga (by the flow). This territory has become a sparsely populated area - the Wild Field. The Timur's army have captured about half of a million of Bulgarians populations.
The survivors of Bulghars escaped on right side of the Volga and Kama. They joined to their relatives who were already there earlier. Bulghars on the right side of Volga were identified - a Chuvash.
In medium 14th age, the Golden Horde has done the islamic an official religion. Everything Tatarian was hostile for Chuvashes. The Chuvashes refused from Islam and having returned to its ancient traditional faith. Volga Bulgars, which remained faithfull Islam, have taken the state language of the Golden Horde - Tatar, and soon definitively become a Tatar - was assimilated.
Khanate of the Kazan
In 15th age the Golden Horde has disintegrated on several sovereign (separate) parts - khanates. The much of Tatars come to former territory of Volga Bulgar. Here arised a Kazan Khanate with state center at Kazan - Bulgarian town, a castle.
Chuvashian Bulgars have think that Khanate of Kazan will become as the new Bulgar, and had became an ally of Kazan of own accord.
Chuvashes defended Kazan from Russian Tsardom. Russian tsars often time were hit upon Kazan. Chuvashes with union of Cheremises destroyed supplies with reinforcement and foods for Russian troops, and sink the Russian naves that sailed on Volga to Russian army assaulted many times upon Kazan. Russians always happened to remove the siege and return back empty-handed.
At the beginning of 16th age control on Kazan have seized the cruel Islamic dynasty of Crimean Tatar - Ghirey. Under power of Ghireys for Chuvash happened is difficult.
Chuvashia (Ghornaya Storona, the Mounts (Hills) Side) was shown the most rich province of Kazan Khanate. The taxes of Ghireys became more high.
The Chuvashes didn't withstanding oppressive a new powers of Kazan and ceased to help Kazan Khanate. Chuvashes became allies of the Russians. Soon Kazan Khanate lost supports of Chuvash was conquered by Russian Tsardom of tsar Ivan IV (Ivan Awesome).
Thenceforward, the Chuvashes were included in Russian Empire. The tsar Ivan the Terrible (Awesome) for Chuvashes - Ivan the Good.
Soon in Russia the Ryurikovich's dynasty was changed on Romanov family. The Russian tsarist governments of Romanov dynasty had forgotten merits of Chuvashes and had put forward against Chuvashes the many much economic and political sanctions. Was forbidden to Chuvashs the concern in craft production and fabrication of weapons. Chuvashia changed to solely agrarian province and was divided between different regions (gubernia) in Russian Empire.
Russian Orthodox Church oppressively christianized Chuvashes. Chuvashes participated in all riots and rebellions in history of the Russian Empire.
Many Chuvashes, who forgot traditional religion and didn't trusted to Russian priests, have become the atheists. Although, much of Chuvashes didn't forgot their traditional culture and faith.
On mouth of Volga and Kama ancestor of the Chuvashes (Volga Bulghars) coming from territories beside Black Sea and steppes of the Don river.
In these territories between Volga river and Black Sea in 7th century existed the nomadic state the Great Bulghar.
Bulghars were the splinter of Huns Empire - of barbarian emperor Attila.
After death of Attila the Huns divided on many tribes with ending in their names on "oghur" or "ghur": Hunoghurs, Saroghurs, Utioghurs, Kutrioghurs etc; also with ending on "ar" or "ir": Savirs (Suvars), Khazars, Avars, and Magyars (Madiars), and so on.
In medium 6th age steppe East Europe were occupied by Turkic Khaganate. The descendants of the Attila from gender (clan) Doulu (Toulu, Tula) organized alliance of the resistance against the Turkic - the Oghur.
Turkes withstanding to Oghur were identified as the Oghuz. Acted system of the keywords indicating friend or foe, contraposition of Hunnish "r" - oghur, to Turkic "z" (or "s" or sometimes "d") - the oghuz (and else Hunnish "l" to turkic "sh").
Chuvashes, the only surviving descendants of the Oghurs and Huns.
Oghurs of the Doulu defeated and disunited the Turkic Khaghanate. Turkes renounced faithfulness (allegiance) to its chieftains from Ashina dinasty.
Ashina's, the originally old Hunnish dynasty, have found the refuge beside remained faithful by him the Khazars.
The chieftain of Oghurs, a khan Organ Doulo (the Siberian-Khan), has displaced the Oghuz-Turkic to the east from a lake Balkhash. He beside around of Aral Sea created a richest province Organza (Urgench), known later as Hoarezm.
Map of Oghurs (Doulu) Union 570-620ths
The nephew of Organ by name Kubrat Doulo possessed of the main part of Oghurs, he created in steppe beside Black Sea the state of the Bulghars (Bulgaria).
Related ethnoses Khazars and Bulghars became the most cruel enemies.
After death of the Bulgars ruler the khan Kubrat, his sons have separated the tribes between himself. Saved the names of three his sons: Bitboyan (Boyan), Kotraq, Asparuh.
Khazars used the weakening of Bulghars and have conquered their territory.
The defeated Bulghars dispersed on different sides. A part of Bulghars left in Central Europe. The other part by khan Asparuh (junior son of Kubrat) have moved to Danube riverside. Here Bulghars was mixed with a slavs and founded modern Bulgaria. Remained Bulgarians were got under the power of Khazars.
The most part of Bulghars gradually advanced to mouths of the rivers Volga and Kama (by khan Kotraq). These Bulghars founded Bulgaria of Volga. Volga Bulgaria initially depended on Khazars.
The some of descendants of the Huns are Khazars created on occupied lands a new Empire the Khazarian Khaghanate (Khaghanlykh). Khazars had conquered much slavonic and finnish tribes which paid tribute to them.
Khazaria developed as transit trade state for east goods, through Bysanty in Europe, and through Caucasus in Front Asia. The basic businesses of Khazars either as Bulghars was a nomadic stock-breeding. The cities of Khazars, beside Caucasus mountains and in delta of Volga, were as their bases for cool winter period. They consisted basically of temporary nomad's tents - jurt (cюрт). During summer season Khazar's "cities" lefted with their places and going to migrations.
From decaying of Bulghars, the influence of the dynasty Doulou in Siberia came to weaken too. The Oguz turks have occupied the territory beside Aral before Caspian sea.
After leaving Savirs (Sabirs) from Siberia, here remained else much Huns. The Huns in Siberia having different finns-lapoids tribes which related a modern Khants and Mansies. Even after Avars in the enormous space of Siberian steppe was living many nomadic tribes.
The Huns mired them to nomadic lifestyle.
Here Huns having formed the potentate caste of tribes, and they have adopted the language of local finn-lappids population. The Huns who remained in Siberia named itself - Madiar (Magyar).
In 60-70th years of 6 age Magyars was fall into turkic power. Magyars in fight with conquerors have verged to Oghur alliance under governing the clan Doulou. From name Oghur, Magyars and populations of Siberia often referred to as "ughr" (yugra) or "voghul" - from chuvash: woghor - an oxen.
After destruction the Great Bulgharia by Khazars in East Europe, clan of the Doulou became to lose their own positions. The Oguz turks have occupied the territory beside Aral before Kaspian sea.
Turks in change from Huns were not assimilated with won ethnos, in other the conquered peoples took the turkic speech. In total happen south-east part of Magyars had become a Turkic.
These tribes were identified "Kuman" - a hermmits, from turkic "kum" - a desert. Other their name was - Qypsyac.
Oghuzs have displaced from Central Asia remainder Hephthalites - Kunghars, desert Oghurs, the White Huns. The name of this nomades known as a Bagganak, or Petcheneq.
Magyars displaced out of all sides did request the shelter beside Khazars.
The population of Hazarian Khaghanat is very reduced out after wars with Arabic Сaliphate lasted with mediums 7th age until 40th years 8th. The faithfull allies of Khazars the Savirs (Sabirs) was left to Volga Bulghars.
Khazars had let to Magyars and placed them in steppe beside Black Sea, on territory previously pertaining to Bulghars. For Kazars was needs the power capable to withstand Alans and Slavs who becomed more stronges. Here Magyars tried named to himself of the names of earlier famous Bulgharian tribes sounding as: Hunugur, Vunugur or Honogur. From these version of ethnic names have occurred their modern names such as: used of west Europe - Hungary, or Russian - Vengr.
At medium 8th century Bulghars (from Danube) in alliance with Franks of the king Charles of Great smashed the Avars in Pannonies. In the tag end of 9th age the Khazars had let come in own territory a Pecheneqs (Kounghars).
Magyars happened to search for the new lands. Magyars (Hungaries) moved in former lands of Avars - Pannonia.
wars of the Khazars and Arabs
The first clashes Khazars with Arabs happened when else existed the Great Bulgharia. Before the end of 7th age to Khazars managed to hold Trans-Сaucasus territories against Arabians. Gradually Arabs was able to take the initiative.The Arab's armies was exceed the power of Khazars, their number of warriors got to more then 150 thousand. The number of the Khazarian troopses fluctuated in 30 - 40 thousands warriors.
At this times the Khazar's rulers were are woman a khanama Parsbit (Tiger Face) and his grandson Parsjyl (Barsil). Parsjyl were are commander of Khazar's army.
In 30th years 8th age the commander of Arab's army Marwan II, the conqueror of Caucasus, with 150 thousandth army going to much far in holdings of Khazar Khaghanat until the lands of Bourtases. Bourtases - supposedly consisted of mordvian tribes. The Arabs have built pontoon from logs of Bourtas'es houses and crossing through Volga. Khazarian army reposed on the other side of the Volga. Khazars did not expect the possibility of the crossing through broad river of enormous arabic troops. Khazarian army was surrounded by Arabians and smashed. However, the Arabs leaved from Khazaria and more was not returned in Khazar Khaghanat. However, the Arabs have left Khazaria and more was not returned in East Europe. But from that time, the islam became more popular in the Сaucasus and Volga regions.
Most damaged from a devastating wars with Arabs the territories, for winter season, of Huns the Savirs and Barsils in Caucasus. In result the main part of Huns was leaved to north, to the land of Volga Bulghars. Later the Savirs founded on coast of the Volga the city Suvar.
faith of Moses
The Khazars confirming that they nor in than did not depend on Arabs, the hosted a jew refugees from Palestine occupied by Arabs. The regal dynasty Ashina had taken the faith of Moses.
Existed a Khazarian legend about their ten first ancestors which considered of the descendant biblical Thogarma are grandson of Jafet. On Khazarian bibles, Khazars were only seventh of the sons Thogarma. This was else a legend of Hunnu (Xiongnu) the ancestors of Huns. Word "hunnu" Itself meant - a ten, Chuvashian variant "wunnu" is same meaning.
On legends of Khazars, the most honourable were a descendants of the most younger Thogarma's son - the Savirs (Sowars). On nomadic traditions, the senior sons one for other leaved the parental migration lands and creating their own. The paternal manor was got the most younger of them.
The direct descendants of Savirs - a Chuvashes. Savir the tenth son of Thogarma - or Tughar, by Khazarian bible.
Declining of the Khazarian Khaqanlyh
Subsequent to Magyars, the Pechenegs (Kounghars) were asked to entry in the Khazars possessions. Oghuzs and Kumans (Polovets, Kypchak) pressed (displaced) of Pechenegs from orient, out of Siberia. Khazaria became the passable corridor to Europe.
In 10th age, the Scandinavian chieftains united the tribes of East Slavs and created the large state - Rus', the ancestor of western Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. The city Kiev became a capital of Rus'.
At the beginning 10th age a Suvars, resided in Volga Bulgaria, divided on two tribes. Askils - their headed the old gender - an As, were faithfull to khan moslem of the Volga Bulgaria. They were located on right side of the Volga, having founded there town Asjal.
The much of Suvar didn't support the longing to Islam in government. Suvars else remembered the invasions an Arabs, who ravaged their former territory beside Caucasian mountains. Suvars invited its ruler from Scandinavians, who is named - Vyryg, from Varyag (Variagian, varanger). At this timeses, the Scandinavians (vikings) were a most popular in Europe.
In medium of 10th age, the militant ruler of the Rus' by name Svyatoslav did attack to the Khazars. Russians have destroyed Khazarian cities and very weakened their power. Russians started to check the territories beside fortress Shurkel (White House) on river of Don and region with city Tumen-Tarkhan (Thamatarkhas) beside Kuban river. After Svyatoslav who death from Pechenegs, the title of grand knyaz (prince) of Rus' has geted his son Vladimir. He tried to crashed by finally the Khazars, during their last khaqan by name Kain, but Bulghars of Volga took a Khazars under to the protection. Bulghars taked for controling the territories on riverbed of Volga.
The last khaqan of Khazars there was are by name Kain (by Jewish name as all Khazarian rulers), known in Russian legends as Kalin Tsar, in XI c.
The supporting bases of Bulghars were situated on Volga, the former cities of Khazars, such as: Sembir, Samar, Sharatu, Sarysin. In the field of delta of the Volga, by change to the ravaged a capital city of Khazar Khanate - the Atil, Bulghars have created the new fortress the As-Tarkhan, that by Chuvash - a Senior Lord, but possible is meant as - the from dynasty As (As-Kel), the old Sabir's (Suvars) rulers. The people of As were ruled in cities beside mouth of the rivers, on Don river it is the As-Kardi (Asgard) - by Chuvashian: a Fortress of As, on place of the ancient Thanais.
To the 11th age the Kumans increased of the power in the steppe of Siberia. They begined to displace of the Oghuzs from Central Asia. The Kumans were avoid by side the fortifications of Volga Bulghars and invaded to the lands of the ravaged Khazars. Kumans finished the defeat of the Khazars.
The large part of Khazar-judes, subsequent to Magyars, begun to migrated to the countries of the East Europe, where went the development the trades and crafts. Many of Khazars filled the Volga Bulgaria and lands of Bourtases. Were began the exodus of Khazarians, as previously mass exodus of the Jews from Palestine occupied by Arabs.
Khazars of the Shurkel begun russified, from them are derived Cossacks of Don. The Rus' has lost the principality of Tmutarakan (Tuman-Tarkhan) by blows of the Kumans and defected to them Khazars - Kasogs (the Cossacks). The russified Khazars departed to border of steppe beside Rus'. Here they gave rise to the Russian and Ukrainian Cossacks.
Volga Bulghars restored and developed the safe trade on Volga river due to supporting bases and agreements with nomades. Against current, upward of river, the naves and rafts draged along coast by means of oxes, horses, and also by power of the peoples are slaves - burlaks (by old chuvash: "berlyk" - the total force). The main of goods for Rus' was is a salt from Caspian seasides, by Chuvash: tovar. To the Oriental and Front Asia was transported mainly: furs and skins, and also fabrics from flax. In north lands was finding the tusks of the mammoth and gigantic woolly rhinoceros. From them was produced the carving utensils, and by them scared foreigners. Also there was existed the navigation on Don river before the fortress As (Azov, Thanais), and hereinafter to the Crimea and Bisantian Empire. The goods from Volga through town Sarasin (Tsaritsyn, Volgograd) were carried on ground to the Don.
The Empire of Xiongnu in the centre and in the east of Asia was created by chanyu Modu (or Madar). He was senior but isn't the most loved son of chanyu by name Tumen (chuv.: Chemen, Temen). The Modu (Madar) founded its obedient guard - Magyars (Madiars), by himself name. Modu killed (diposed) of his enemies by means of its guard and became the chanyu. Modu conquered the nearby tribes and waged war with chinese empire Khan, he has increased the territory of Xiongnu in much times greater.
The China tried be fenced from militant Xiongnu by enormous wall.
The Huns, as later Turks and Khazars, have considered themself a descendants of ten sons of their initial ancestor. The possible name of their ancestor was a Toghar (or Tughar). Probably that ancestors of the Xiongnu were are Altaic tribes of Andronov's culture, from valley of Thoghar.
The Chuvash language - the descendant of the language Xiongnu. The Chuvash numeral word "wunnu" or "wun" (vungnu) - a ten, it is a variant of ethnic names: Xiongnu (Hunnu), Huns.
Descendants of Modu is losted his might. The internecine wars began In Empire of Xiongnu. Xiongnu divided on a north and south partes. The North Xiongnu - a Royal Xiongnu, remained the faithfull for chanyu gender.
Chineses used the strife among Xiongnu. At the end of 2nd century, the Chineses in alliance with rebelled tribes (and Xianbei) have displaced North Xiongnu from Altai to the modern West Siberia. The North Xiongnu have leaved on riverbed yard Irtysh to falling the river Tobol into Irtysh.
Xiongnu rose upwards of the river Tobol and on riverside Toura (chuv.: god's), this not far from its sink into Tobol, created forced settling for winter and named this the Tumen, by name of first chanyu.
Xiongnu, forcing in West Siberia (modern), have conquered here tribes of the Finn-Uralic type, and has rendered the appreciable influence for the whole finnish type world in later.
The very name of them (self-name) - a Finns (Finnu, Fingnu), derives by Hunnic ethno-names: hunnu (Xiongnu); and chuvash - vunnu (vungnu). This result of the Huns conquests epoch of the north regions of West Siberia, also East Europe and Scandinavia, remained in history is unknown.
Xiongnu moved to steppe of modern Kazakhstan here they conquered and joined to themself the tribes of Saces (east Scythians). Commencing thence we their shall name the Huns.
With the 4th age the increased Huns have begun the known their march in territory of the Europe. The invasion of Huns has provoked the essential changes for ethnic geographies of the Europe, which named as - an Epoch of the Great Transmigration of Folks.
During the ruler of Huns whose name titled as Attila, "Barbarian" Empire of Huns spreaded from Rhine in west to the Irtysh in the east; from the lands of Lapps (saams) in north to the Aral sea and mountains of Caucasus in the south. Attila founded the great dynasty of nomadic Empire - the Doulo (Doulu, Dulu, Tulu).
The Huns have conquered much tribes: Sarmatians, Scythians, Uralians, Lappids, Goths, Germanians. Many of them assimilated by Huns.
One of this tribes an Acatziri (Akatzirs) derived from Scythian an Agathyrsi. Acatzirs have raised rebellion against Attila. Attila has smashed their having delivered above them his senior son - Ellac.
From ruling dynasty of Acatzirs has survived only young prince (shad) - Asen Shad, or Ashina. He has escaped first to China, but has not got there supports. Asen has found the refuge on Altai, with the kagan (emperor) of the Rourans (Avars). Here Asen received a new tribe which became known as Turks. Later descendants of Asen Shad - an Ashina, having won Avars (Rourans) and created their Empire - the Turkic Khaganat (Khaganlyq).
The Avars to be escaped to the west.
After death of Attila, the internecine strifes began in Empire of Huns amongst multiple ethnoses.
The younger son of Attila - the Irnak (Irna, Irnik), lefted away their own people from the worrisome Central Europe to the Black Sea. Here subsequently they have named - Bulghars (Bulgars).
Well, then you know what happened later...
The modern peaceful nation Chuvash - a legal successors of the culture, language and histories of all ancient nomads of the Asia and Europe. Because by forming of Huns entered many ethnoses, such as: Scythians, Sarmats, and Saces with Massagets, Finns and many other.
Chuvash language include much words from many languages of the Eurasian continent, from Chinese and Mongolian, also Greek and Armenian, from Iranian and Arabian, and even from Eskimo.
The Great Emperors (and Kings) of Chuvash:
Tumen As (Touman) 250 BC, Modu As 200 BC; Balymer As 400 AC; Asen As (Ashina) 470 AC; Attila Doulo (Avalkhi Adil (Avitokhl, the Ancient Adyl)) 454 AC; Ernak Doulo 500 AC; Boyarex As (Boarix, woman Savir) 550 AC; brovers Bumyn and Istemi Ashina (Turks) 570 AC; Organ Doulo (OghurKhan, Siberian-Khan) 630 AC; Koubrat Doulo 650 AC; Alp As (Ilitver, Savir) 690 AC; Parsbit Ashina (woman Khazar, Alp's daughter) 730 AC; Almosh Doulo (Bulghar & Magyar) 930 AC; Arpad Doulo (Magyar, Almosh's son) 910 AC; Varyag Ruriks (Suvar & Viking) 940 AC; Kain Ashina (Kalin Tsar) 1000 AC; Ivan Ruriks (The Good, Russian) 1590 AC; Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) 1924 AC
Original - more details with maps and photos here: : http://www.zaryanin.com/alexander/histchuv-en/